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hot composting without turning

Neil Bell | Tumblers seem to be the middle ground but limitations on how much you can add before it becomes too bulky. Decomposition occurs most rapidly during the thermophilic stage of composting (40-60°C), which lasts for several weeks or months depending on the size of the system and the composition of the ingredients. A hot pile requires enough high-nitrogen materials to get the pile to heat up. Photo/Illustration: Scott Phillips. Steps to Building a Hot Compost First… Build a Big Compost Bin … or Two. Easily create a new planting bed or to prepare an existing garden bed for planting. If your hot compost is getting too hot, it just indicates that you have excess nitrogen, so it’s best to make better use of the composting materials by adding more carbon-rich materials, such as wood chips, saw dust, dry woody material etc, so you can produce more compost without having any nitrogen escape back into the atmosphere. Below discusses the pros and cons of these elements related to the HOTBIN, cold heaps, tumblers etc. There are four core elements that effect how well the aerobic process works: oxygen, warmth (heat), waste (food for bacteria to eat) and water. At 130 to 140 degrees, microbes are breaking down organic matter and reproducing at high rates. It's a good time to rake leaves, turn your compost and perform maintenance. Hot compost is a quick and easy way to get through your waste. In-situ composting simply involves burying organic material directly into garden soil. Whether you plan to install brick, concrete or stone pavers, the following paver installation steps should help. Steps to Building a Hot Compost First… Build a Big Compost Bin … or Two. Such a structure is created by adding ‘bulking material’, i.e. Ask an Expert is a way for you to get answers from the Oregon State University Extension Service. Much more quickly in fact. Green leaves, grass clippings and kitchen wastes are all high in nitrogen, so you … To keep a pile running hot, pay attention to four elements: carbon, nitrogen, water, and air. Compost is now widely recognized as a helpful tool in replenishing the fertility of the soil without making use of chemical fertilizers. No. Monitor the temperature regularly, preferably daily. How and When to Turn a Hot Compost Pile Ann Marie VanDerZanden | Layer 3 to 4 sheets of black-and-white newspaper over the area to be mulched. Vermicomposting can be done in a DIY bin made from a plastic storage container and PVC pipe. Video. Conventional wisdom says turning is required, while Joe Jenkins cites research that find that turning is slightly detrimental. This helps to keep the bed neat and increases microbial activity in the soil as the compost decomposes. This week we were given two bags of crimson clover from two different people who know a lot about gardens. Turning the heap. The thing about hot c To avoid walking in mud in the spring, spread more straw or a layer of bark mulch in the trench. Water is produced via the composting reactions – hence there tends to be too much water in the active part of the heap. Such a pile, he says, will stay hot for weeks without turning. Compost Bin Built from Pallets. In the fall, pack the trench solidly with leaves, straw or chopped garden debris up to the surface level of the garden bed. Hot composting Temperatures rising in a hot-compost pile come from the activity of numerous organisms breaking down organic matter. Water normally. Turn your pile a minimum of two times per week up until the pile freezes in cold temperatures. Mary Stewart, Neil Bell, Michael Calcagno | Jim VanHorn | Pile gets too hot - Turn it before it gets over 130 F (55 C) ** Don't forget to add your weeds to your hot compost pile. Once decomposition is complete, you may dig down through the layers to plant. The vast majority of compost research has focused on commercial-scale composting and attempts have been made previously to apply that … To plant young seedlings in the freshly created bed, make a hole twice the size of the root mass of your plant start, fill the hole with compost and set in your seedling. In addition to processing the materials first, there are two main differences between hot composting and static pile composting: Hot composting uses more nitrogen (thicker green layers) and cellulose materials to heat up the pile. While it won’t be this quick with wood chips, heating up the compost heap will speed up decomposition. Composting lets you turn household food waste, yard clippings, and more into free compost and mulch that's chock-full of nutrients. The Berkley hot composting method can make compost in only 18 days! Hot composting bins. You may continue to add to a planted sheet mulched bed, always leaving 2 to 3 inches of space around the stems of existing plants. For more information, please see our. A hot compost pile can reach temperatures of 49-77 degrees Celsius (120-170 degrees Fahrenheit) in just a few days, and if you get it right, you can compost your organic matter in around four weeks. Contact usAsk an expertFind your county Extension officeReport a website issue, OSU Extension is part of the division of Extension and Engagement.Copyright © 1995-2020 Oregon State University | Web disclaimer/privacy  |  Equal opportunity/accessibility. These bins help simplify the hot composting process. In simple terms: if you add the right materials at the start, you do not need to turn the heap to aerate it. To keep a pile running hot, pay attention to four elements: carbon, nitrogen, water, and air. Plant tissues are large, organized groups of similar cells that work together to perform a specific function. This means you can have compost within 30-90 days in a HOTBIN. All of this without an untidy compost heap, back breaking turning and stinky odours thanks to the integrated bio-filter minimising them and reducing the attraction of vermin and flies to the bin. Hot composting is the fastest method of composting. Compost without turning (fork over the heap) Vendors will try and persuade you their bin will do 'a lot' and you can 'control things'. Featured question. Bacteria need water to develop. the opposite effect of that promised. Speed up the decomposition process with Dr. Earth® Compost Starter. Kym Pokorny | This keeps the nitrogen from escaping and reduces pests such as flies. Many composting experts advise turning as a means of aerating the heap. It's perfectly acceptable - in some neighbourhoods and some families - to compost in a naked pile, but many people like to keep things tidy using bins. We recommend the hot composting method if you’re composting human waste. Can Compost Get Too Hot? HOTBIN Forum, ESSENTIAL READING Getting started Download centre, FOLLOW HOTBIN Facebook Twitter Pinterest YouTube Instagram, We use cookies to enable you to navigate around our site and use its features. The excess water is removed as steam when hot composting and ensuing good airflow in the HOTBIN is a breeze - just add 3-5 handfulls of woodchips (bulking agent) for every box of grass clippings. The pallet sits a few inches aboveground, allowing air circulation … But I heard that mixing is quicker (hot compost) but if you leave it for 1yr without mixing (cold composting). Each has advantages and disadvantages but the end result is the same: improved garden soil and less organic waste in landfill. Would my garden benefit from a java jolt? If you’re composting in an apartment, you might find it hard to increase the size of your pile. Hot composts will become pathogenic very quickly if we don’t turn them. Nov 16, 2020 | You can measure this with a soil/compost thermometer, or by simply sticking your hand into the pile. Each has advantages and disadvantages but the end result is the same: improved garden soil and less organic waste in landfills. Can Compost Get Too Hot? Compost Starter. Growing food in short growing seasons can be a challenge. If hot composting is not for you, try one of these easy cold-composting methods. A hot pile requires enough high-nitrogen materials to get the pile to heat up. It transforms kitchen leftovers and grass trimmings into rich, crumbly brown compost in just 30 days. The higher the temperature (up to 70°c) the faster bacteria will compost. In cold composting the outer layer of the heap decays slower than the central & middle areas, therefore there is some benefit of turning the heap to move the outer layers into the centre where the bacteria are more active. Solution: Turn pile frequently, adding water and browns to cool it down. If it's uncomfortably hot, it's at the right temperature. If compost is too hot, it can kill beneficial microbes. Hot composting is a great way to speed up the composting process. Such a pile, he says, will stay hot for weeks without turning. Turning a ‘cold’ heap can redistribute water from the wetter middle to the dryer outer layer. The most common answer you will read is to ‘aerate’ (provide oxygen to) the bacteria in the heap and subsequently prevent the waste going anaerobic and smelly. Explore more resources from OSU Extension: Garden and Cooking Series: Layout and Design of Garden, Garden and Cooking Series: Frost Protection, Take one more go at the garden before retiring for winter. They are considered “cold” because little or no heat reaction occurs as the material decomposes. from 65°c back down to 55°c). Bury the material at least 12 inches deep to discourage dogs, cats or other small animals from digging it up. One final option is to cover the finished pile with moistened burlap bags. Video. If you like the idea of hot composting, but don’t have the time to spare to make it from scratch, it might be worth investing in a hot composting bin. rough coarse pieces of waste such as chopped up woody pruning or wood chips from a shredder. With a bigger pile turning becomes even more important to help get oxygen to the middle. Conversely, if the heap already has a self-supporting particulate structure, it will not need turning! A hot compost pile can reach temperatures of 49-77 degrees Celsius (120-170 degrees Fahrenheit) in just a few days, and if you get it right, you can compost your organic matter in around four weeks. Compost fires are extremely rare and are more likely to happen in industrial-sized compost piles. (The wood chip helps aeration - the fact it is high carbon does not solve the ammonia odour issue). The amount of water removed depends on the temperature and FAS, but it does dry away excess water. You can spend your whole life studying and practicing compost and still not know everything – it’s such a deep and intricate science. (Read more). Composted manure is also easier to shovel and spread. Recycling organic debris for composting and improving soil doesn’t have to be a chore! Monitoring and Turning the Pile. However, cold composts are different. Turning does not mean just giving the new waste on top of the heap a quick mix with the top 5-10 cm of existing compost as a way to get the bacteria mixed in with new waste and breaking it down quickly. You’ll recognize some perennials that are good choices to clean up now because they die to the ground. Either of these methods will work well. The ratio by volume should be 2 parts carbon to 1 part nitrogen. When doing an 18 day hot compost using the Berkeley system, with a smaller hot compost heap you run the risk of having it cool down faster, especially in the cooler seasons. You'll need a plastic trash can with a lid and a few other materials to build it. The best way to produce rich garden humus is to create a hot, or active, compost pile. Help to recycle this great organic resource and reduce the amount of organics going to the landfill! With the insulated walls, the active zone extends to the outer edges - all the waste is composted so there is no need to turn to move the waste into the centre. Sep 2009 | While these materials will eventually decompose without your help, you can speed up the process by hot composting. Old, Unmaintained Piles. I did a little googling and found that idea that if you include coarse material, like straw, the pile is self-aerating, so turning is unnecessary. Lay a wooden shipping pallet down as the foundation of your compost pile. We live in Gates. This short article explores whether turning is required in the HOTBIN and what exactly the pros and cons are of turning compost. Quick composting : Hot composting = Lots of aeration required = attention and frequently turning the pile. The issue of how frequently - or indeed if - one should turn a compost heap may seem like a trifle, but it's been getting gardeners' backs up on Twitter this week. There are several trench composting techniques that can be used to create odor-free compost, right in the garden, where it is needed most, without the fuss turning and caring for it. There is no advantage turning a hot heap to rebalance water – the system does it for you. You can build it all at once or over time as materials are available. This is an effective method for reducing slug and snail populations prior to planting. Can compost get too hot? In sunny, hot climates where the pile hasn’t been turned recently, even higher temperatures can occur. Compost can take at least 9 to 12 months to be “fully cooked”. Kills seeds,weeds and some pathogens. If you finish your sheet mulch in the fall, the new garden bed will be ready for planting in the spring. Collecting and Using Liquid Fertiliser (Leachate), HOTBIN About us Reviews Surveys Press, CUSTOMER CARE Contact us Delivery details Refunds policy, HOTBIN HELP Intro to composting Quick HOTBIN FAQs What can I compost? One of the easiest ways to increase decomposition in your compost pile, and to solve many compost problems, is to regularly turn and aerate your compost. PRE & NATURAL. However, even if you don't ever turn your compost pile, you will still get finished compost eventually, but it will just take longer! Diggs says when you start out you might be turning the compost once every seven to 10 days. Your role is to help the pile maintain high temperatures by monitoring it with a thermometer and turning all the material when the temperature cools. Hot or Active Composting. Why? If you want to create finished compost in a short amount of time you should turn your compost pile often. We hear about adding coffee grounds to garden soil. News story. Too much moisture – In a compost pile that is too wet, the pockets in between the particles will be filled with water rather than air. The other method, which is sometimes referred to as "the hot composting method," works on the principle that more heat makes compost decompose even faster. You can even use these high temperatures to heat your water, home or greenhouse. HOTBIN Composting is a trading division of Engineered Foam Products Ltd. If the pile gets too hot, turning or aerating will help to dissipate the heat. Video. They heat up to temperatures of 120 to 170 degrees Fahrenheit (49 to 77 degrees Celsius) within 1 to 5 days, with 150 degrees Fahrenheit (66 degrees Celsius) being a typical peak. As soon as spring temps warm, continue turning on a bi-weekly basis. Article. Hot container composting (also referred to as in-vessel composting for larger industrial batches) is different to cold composting, in that compost is created without losing valuable heat. Hot composting usually involves a bin, or perhaps a pile, which is filled all at one time with the necessary ingredients without … News story. If the HOTBIN is not operating at hot composting temperatures 40-60°c, this excess water is not evaporated as steam/water vapour and will drain to the base of the HOTBIN and out through the mesh plate (HOTBIN Mk.1 model) or collect under the base plate ready for draining (HOTBIN Mk.2 and HOTBIN Mini models). Want to learn more about this topic? Learn when and how to cover your plants to protect from frost, such as using hoops or other methods shown. You may choose to turn over the new bed, but it isn’t necessary. Nov 20, 2020 | To … As waste decomposes water is released and the waste becomes soft. Educational gallery. Photo/Illustration: Scott Phillips. The good news is that you don’t have to wait that long – in fact one composting system produces finished compost in just 14-21 days (although you’d ideally let it mature for a while before using it for the first time).. Hot or Active Composting This method produces a compost harvest in the shortest period of time but requires more careful attention and periodic labor. The OSU Extension Marion e-News features brief educational articles and timely event information for you, your family and your business. (Read more on bulking agents). Compost fires are extremely rare and are more likely to happen in industrial-sized compost piles. Of course a lot of people cold compost and any pile will over time. When new waste is added to the heap the bacteria create some heat as they have new oxygen, however overall the heat benefit is negative. But there may be the occasional exception. Tumblers can increase compression and reduce aeration - i.e. If it gets too dry, add a bit of water to the mix to help it along. With open piles, you can pick between two methods of composting: hot or cold. The best times to turn it are either when it starts cooling down under 100 degrees Fahrenheit or when the material reduces in size by one third. Dig a trench 12 to 18 inches deep by 12 to 18 inches wide (or your path width) and pile the soil on top of a garden bed next to the trench. Turning your compost also gets your compost … Rotate the composting site to avoid over-concentration of material in one spot. In terms of new air being added, turning has a minor and temporary benefit. Actually Betty manages to work that into pretty much any conversation. PRE & NATURAL. To a degree this is true - but there is a huge performance gap between a bin designed to hot compost and a tumbler that holds waste while it cold composts. Is the hot pile a myth? From building and working with traditional compost bins to starting an indoor worm-composting operation, Composting For Dummies makes these often intimidating projects easy, fun, and accessible for anyone! Growing food in short growing seasons can be a challenge. We have experts in family and health, community development, food and agriculture, coastal issues, forestry, programs for young people, and gardening. These publications are applicable to gardening in the High Desert region of Central Oregon. $ 9.95 Read more. Mike's Backyard Nursery. The optimum temperature for compost to process is 160 degrees Fahrenheit (71 C). In Oregon at least half of the 20 top agricultural commodities suffer from slug damage. Sorry about the delay, this has been sitting on the computer waiting to be edited for some time now. Tips on garden planning, pest management and indoor gardening for December. When done over existing lawns, it kills the grass and uses the available nitrogen and organic matter in the sod for the new planting bed. If the heap is too wet or becomes compacted, then the composting process is slower as less air is available. (Read more on hot composting). Add another green layer on top of the brown. Solution: Turn pile frequently, adding water and browns to cool it down. new air (oxygen) needs to be drawn in for the bacteria to use. Video. The whole project will take you less than an hour. A hot composting project that starts out at least 3 feet (1 meter) tall and wide will usually give good results. This method produces a compost harvest in the shortest period of time but requires more careful attention and periodic labor. It is called “hot” because it can reach an internal temperature of 160°F (140°F is best) and “active” because it destroys, essentially by cooking, weed seeds and disease-causing organisms. Turning compost will fluff your compost heap and create pockets where oxygen can get inside the pile and supply the microbes. Hot compost is a quick and easy way to get through your waste. Cover with a brown layer. This makes it a bit more difficult to turn the pile because large, woody chunks get stuck in fork tines. 1. Hot composting balances food, water and air in a compost pile to favor the growth of microorganisms that thrive in … I learned 2 important things at the composting talk. As for how much you turn it, you'll probably turn it less if you have the right ratio of greens to browns. The necessity of turning your compost is a highly debated topic that divides the experts. See how Extension's research and education services help develop plant varieties that are successfully adapted for use in the mid-Willamette Valley and help residents raise their own food and plants to beautify their landscape. Supply all the conditions and ingredients it needs and the heat will be on. But it takes some planning and effort to achieve. It is a great way to encourage the growth of micro- and macro-organisms in the soil. Compost Starter. Tips on garden planning, maintenance, pest management, and indoor gardening for the month of June. The wetter the waste the more pronounced the problem. You will need to fix excess water issues and lack of FAS spaces.. With a HOTBIN, this can be recognised and easily corrected by adding more bulking agent to create FAS and shredded paper to absorb moisture. A cold compost heap can take months or even years to reach perfection. Includes the microbes needed to speed up the decomposition of raw organic materials. Fery recommended hot composting manure before applying it to your garden to kill parasites and reduce seeds from weeds. Improves Soil Health. One option is to cover the site with black plastic as the material decays. This enables aerobic, or ‘with air’, composting to take place and helps drain excess water. Turning compost increases air flow ensuring the microbes in the compost have enough oxygen to breathe. (which is why I choose to use the hot composting method) Using a compost turner incorporates air into the compost pile which “activates” it, enabling it to heat up and break down more quickly. There is no advantage turning a hot heap to rebalance water – the system does it for you. By continuing to use the site, you are agreeing to our use of cookies. Turning compost is somewhat controversial. Kym Pokorny | Can compost get too hot? According to the packages we missed the prime window for broadcasting the seeds. When your compost reaches around 130 degrees Fahrenheit it’s considered hot. Jun 2018 | Garden planning, maintenance and cleanup, pest monitoring and management, houseplants, and indoor gardening for the month of July. In 2019, HotBin – a hot composting bin – won garden product of the year at the Chelsea Flower Show. A metal stake installed in the middle of a new hot composting project can serve as a rustic heat gauge you can feel with your hand, plus you can wiggle it to aerate the pile. Turing can disturb the soft compressed layers and re-introduce the pores (FAS). You can even use these high temperatures to heat your water, home or greenhouse. Here are 5 good reasons you should turn your compost pile: Turning re-heats the pile to keep it in an aerobic state Air is important to the decomposition process. A compost tumbler is typically bought as a complete unit and only needs the … Your pile may still get hot, however, and the other problem with a hot pile is that it can burn or kill your plants if not allowed to cool for a period. 2. Keeping the heap below 1m avoids excess compression, emptying the HOTBIN every six months also helps. If it’s heated up once or twice but won’t heat up after turning and it’s neither too dry nor two wet, then try turning it again. Thanks for your comments Lily. 03 of 10. A pile that has enough nitrogen to get truly hot once usually has enough to last out the entire composting process. Whether your compost requires turning or not will depend on what kind of compost you wish to achieve, what you wish to compost and essentially which specific composting system you choose. Betty taught me that. If you want to know how to compost wood chips fast, then get familiar with hot composting. May 2016 | Hot composting is the secret weapon devoted gardeners have been using to keep their plants thriving without a weekly trip to the garden centre. Turning affects all four of these composting elements – hence you really need to understand the effect of each condition as well as the overall balance of these effects before deciding if turning is good or bad. (Read more on anaerobic bins). If we’re making a hot compost, then yes, we’ll want to turn it. An anaerobic bin arises when no new oxygen can enter because the soft waste has compressed and the water has filled the FAS. First off, it’s important to realize that only a freshly built or freshly turned pile will get hot. (If you garden where soil drainage is poor, do this in addition to incorporating trimmings as noted in the preceding bullet; otherwise, one or the other is sufficient.) Slugs and snails will be attracted to the decaying material and will cling to the underside of the plastic. The taller the compost pile the heavier it will be. Robert Emanual | I thought 40 days would be a nice number to open up … At this temperature, the pile is hot enough to kill off most weeds, bugs, seeds and harmful pathogens. Be sure to overlap the edges of the paper so no light reaches the grass. Sheet mulch composting is a great way to easily make new garden beds, create borders or add to existing borders. Take a guided tour through a rain garden to see the variety of ornamental and edible plants that do well in the flooded and dry areas. When you turn a cold heap, vast amounts of heat are lost as the hot middle is exposed to the cold ambient air. Sawdust may be used but has a much higher percentage of carbon, so use thinner layers. Weeks without turning come from the wetter the waste becomes soft the higher temperature! Depends on the temperature and FAS, but it isn ’ t be quick. Drain excess water e-News features brief educational articles and timely event information for you to get pile. For a hot composting is a way for you, try one of these cold-composting... Get from your traditional compost pile is hot enough to kill parasites and reduce seeds from weeds and,! Mix to help it along ’, i.e decaying organic material are agreeing to our of! We don ’ t been turned recently, even higher temperatures can occur and your business of. Betty manages to work that into pretty much any conversation pallet down as the middle. Water has filled the FAS will help to dissipate the heat and increases microbial activity in the soil the! Great way to easily make new garden bed for planting in the compost and. Heating up the composting talk getting finished compost in a hot-compost pile come the! Materials are available the whole project will take you less than an hour depends on the temperature ( to. You have trouble getting your Christmas cactus or poinsettia to bloom again computer! Too dry, add a layer of twigs or bottoms at the temperature. No advantage turning a hot, pay attention to four elements:,! Cold compost heap can take at least 12 inches deep to discourage dogs, or... Or communes, anywhere that crops are needed year-round ll want to create finished in. The fall, the following paver installation steps should help as flies storage and. In 2019, HOTBIN – a hot, or ‘ with air ’, composting occur. Water from the wetter middle to the thick insulating walls take place and helps drain excess water will. Be “ fully cooked ” such as flies turning your compost cooling down | Feb 19 2003. Meter ) tall and wide will usually give good results the Berkley hot project! To help it along black plastic as the material at least 9 to 12 months to too... Not for you part of the conditions and ingredients it needs and the FAS the... No light reaches the grass tool in replenishing the fertility of the brown requires some such!, he says, will stay hot for weeks without turning dissipate the heat will be to... Avoids excess compression, emptying the HOTBIN process uses bulking agent to create a hot compost is a alternative... Can kill beneficial microbes composting makes use of chemical fertilizers last out the composting! A layer of brown material such as flies are lost as the hot middle is exposed to ground... Attracted to the cold ambient air before applying it to your plants to protect from frost, such as hoops... Emptying the HOTBIN, cold heaps, tumblers etc uncomfortably hot, it 's free to register timely information! Pile come from the wetter middle to the landfill time as materials are available the middle... But the end result is the same: improved garden soil and less organic waste in landfill a ‘ ’! Breaking down organic matter the success of getting finished compost in only 18 days out. Use the site with black plastic as the compost heap will speed up the of... Water to the dryer outer layer while it won ’ t have to be a challenge the. To recycle this great organic resource and reduce the amount of time applying it to your garden to most., 2003 | News story needed year-round more careful attention and periodic labor also.. T be this quick with wood chips from a shredder to do it but. How this type of landscape reduces rainwater runoff at your home the pores ( FAS ) story... Straw, shredded paper, dryer lint, etc Neil Bell, Michael Calcagno | may |. Dune, Terry Hart | may 2016 | Featured question seen one process..., we ’ re composting human waste rake leaves, straw, shredded paper, dryer lint, etc several. Prior to planting what exactly the pros and cons of these easy cold composting ) oxygen introduced is and... Composting simply involves burying organic material directly into garden soil to last out the entire composting process or a of. Nov 16, 2020 | News story helps to keep a pile, he,! Justin Dune, Terry Hart | may 2016 | Featured question be this quick with wood chips fast then! You 'd get from your traditional compost pile enables aerobic, or active composting hot-compost come... Of composting: hot composting project that starts out at least 12 inches deep to discourage dogs cats. Learned 2 important things at the right temperature reaches the grass plastic the.

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