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multiple case study design example

Corley, K.G., and D.A. It will be of interest whether case studies are eligible to test theories as well. It is assumed that a number of cases will increase the understanding and support theorizing by comparison of the cases. I am very much confused what research design is appropriate for my study. Explanatory, interpretivist, and critical/reflexive designs are widely neglected, narrowing the possible applications of case study research. (1981, 1984) described the design of case study This paper attempts to make two contributions research, and Miles and Huberman (1984) codi- to the literature. There is no theory which explains the phenomenon. Academy of Management Journal 50: 1281–1303. 1989. Academy of Management Review 14: 496–515. Dyer, W.G., and A.L. 2010. This is the level of responding before any treatment is introduced, and therefore the baseline phase is a kind of control condition. Iteration between cases and emerging theory and considering the relevant literature provided the basis for the development of a theoretical framework. The authors describe the differences in these two logics of case selection as follows: “The most similar systems design is based on a belief that a number of theoretically significant differences will be found among similar systems and that these differences can be used in explanation. In addition to the narrow use of case study research, the authors find out that “… most commonly cited methodological literature is not consistently followed” (Piekkari et al. I am grateful for valuable thoughts generously provided by Ann Kristin Zobel. In “social construction of reality”, the sampling is purposeful as well, but for different reasons. 2009. Sozialwissenschaftliche Forschungsmethoden, vol. Third, temporal and contextual boundaries limit the generalizability of the theory. It is a method-orientated handbook of how to design single and multiple case studies with regard to this purpose. I'm struggling to understand whether I should use a single embedded case study or (holistic?) Although qualitative data are preferred in all of the designs, quantitative data are seen as a possible opportunity to strengthen cases by such data. What is missing is a comparison of case study research designs with regard to differences in the contribution to theory. In Workshop on scientific foundations of qualitative research, ed. There is a tentative theory and the research strategy is theory driven. (2009). The theory contribution of case study research designs,, The objective of this paper is to discuss the specificity of multiple case study (MCS) research design using analysis of research description realized according to this strategy in the field of place branding and place marketing published between 1976 and 2016 in scholarly journals. This case study would use several types of research to determine an outcome. McManus. When a study includes more than one single case, a multiple case study is needed. London, Thousand Oaks: Sage Publications. Academy of Management Review 38: 325–331. In their view, a first step of theory building is a careful description of the phenomena. Kaplan, A. Contrarily, the constructivist is researching into specific actions, in specific places, at specific times. 1991. In each academic task, research is the king. Prior knowledge and the discovery of entrepreneurial opportunities. This interpretation is offered to the reader, but the researcher has to provide the material in a sufficient way (thick descriptions), so that the reader can learn from the case as well as draw his or her own conclusions. This is far away from curiosity in the “anomaly approach”. I am a PhD student of medical sociology. Although there are variations in the application of the designs, to the best of my knowledge, the designs represent the spectrum of case study methodologies. Second, I outline and substantiate a theory continuum that varies between theory-building, theory development, and testing theory. The authors followed a literal replication strategy and identified patterns between dynamic capabilities of the firms and their innovation outcomes. Academy of Management Review 36: 6–11. Yin takes a positivistic point of view. Therefore, the researcher is not looking for objective “facts”, nor does he aim at identifying and measuring patterns which can be generalized. New Brunswick, N.J.: Transaction Publishers. Hillebrand, B., R.A.W. Wilkins. What constitutes a theoretical contribution? Seeking qualitative rigor in inductive research: notes on the Gioia methodology. Case study research. Greenwood and Suddaby (2006), for example, used the instrumental case study design by Stake, combining network location theory and dialectical theory. According to Yin’s design, existing theory is the starting point of case study research. 2014. Visit the library and discuss with friends. This result will be discussed in light of the question regarding how these case study designs can inform theory at several points of a continuum of theory. Purposeful sampling is conducted if an extreme case or an unusual case is chosen and if rarely observable phenomena can be investigated with regard to unknown matters and their relationships. Theory can be seen as a final product or as a continuum, and there is an ongoing effort to define different stages of this continuum (Andersen and Kragh 2010; Colquitt and Zapata-Phelan 2007; Edmondson and McManus 2007; Snow 2004; Swedberg 2012). Because of the theoretical issues to be explored and tested, the small-n comparative case study is the appropriate approach to research (Lijphart, 1971; 1975). Second, there is iteration between analysis and existing theory. Our theoretical point of departure can range from the folk theory of participants to any abstract law. Case study research and theory building. Organizational theories: some criteria for evaluation. Hope this helps! Such a test of theories is mainly the domain of experimental and quantitative studies. The Argument for and Against the Case Study Research Design. However, y Case study method has no standard protocol to claim its legitimacy as a a standard method according to Yin. It is somewhat surprising that the extended case study design has been neglected in the management literature so far, and it appears that critical reflexive principles have to be resurrected as they have been in other disciplines (see the overview at Wadham and Warren 2014). Purposeful sampling enables researchers to move away from the indeterminacy that makes generalizations from case studies problematic and in the direction of valid causal explanations of social and political phenomena; for example, the role that research-based knowledge has played in preparing for a probable disaster. Each case is analyzed as a single case on its own to compare the mechanisms identified, leading to theoretical conclusions (Vaughan 1992: 178). Qualitative data analysis: A methods sourcebook (3rd ed). I follow especially the argument by Piekkari et al. The “test” offers a confirmation under which circumstances the theory is useful. Bower, and C.G. Can I use organizational transformation (or something similar wider topic) as the context and digitization as the case with the units of analysis being several different companies? Swedberg (2012) highlights the necessity of observation and extensive involvement with the phenomenon at the early stage of theory-building. What is triangulation of data in qualitative research? Eisenhardt. The role of theory in industrial and organizational psychology. Ituma, A., R. Simpson, F. Ovadje, N. Cornelius, and C. Mordi. Burawoy, M. 1998. London, Thousand Oaks: Sage Publications. Baxter, P., and S. Jack. Welch, C., R. Piekkari, E. Plakoyiannaki, and E. Paavilainen-Mäntymäki. His book explains exactly how you should analyse a  multiple case study. In multiple case study designs, the ability to compare cases enhances the opportunity to theorize. After reading Yin (also Creswell, Eisenhardt etc.) Five misunderstandings about case-study research. Revelatory cases provide the opportunity to investigate into a previously inaccessible inquiry, and the longitudinal study enables one to investigate a single case at several points in time. Thus I conducted interviews with Company A to find out about their role from their view, and then interviewed Company B, C, D, E about their perpectives and view on the role of Company A. Theoretical sampling in “no theory first” aims at selecting a case or cases that are appropriate to highlight new or extend preliminary constructs and reveal new relationships. The conduct of inquiry. 2013. Based on this portfolio, theoretical contributions of case study designs can be better evaluated in terms of understanding, theory-building, theory development, and theory testing. Based on this continuum, I analyze and discuss each of the case study research designs with regard to their location on the theory continuum. Editors’ comments: styles of theorizing and the social organization of knowledge. To analyze alternative case study research designs regarding their contributions to theory, I engage into the following steps: First, differences between case study research designs are depicted. Dooley, L.M. 2009: 567). The art of case study research. 2011: 755). 2011. 2002. The extended case study research design is guided by anomalies that the previous theory was not able to explain through internal contradictions of theory, theoretical gaps, or silences. Case studies at this point of the theory continuum, therefore, have to demonstrate: why the phenomenon is new or of interest; that no previous theory that explains the phenomenon exists; how and why detailed descriptions enhance the understanding of the phenomenon; and how and why new concepts (constructs) and new relationships will enhance our understanding of the phenomenon. Yin, R.K. 2014. Several possibilities exist. As a result, it is unlikely that the specified case study designs contribute to theory in a homogeneous manner. Case study research scientifically investigates into a real-life phenomenon in-depth and within its environmental context. This distinction leads to the next question: is there any interplay between case study research designs and their contributions to the theory continuum? London, Thousand Oaks: Sage Publications. Warren. In rival explanations, rival theoretical propositions are developed as a test of the previous theory. (2006). Constructivist, interpretivist approaches to human inquiry. Corley, and A.L. Cases are sampled if they provide an unusual phenomenon, replicate findings from other cases, use contrary replication, and eliminate alternative explanations. A single case may be chosen to investigate deeply into new phenomena. Organizational research methods series. On the contrary, the research question in “gaps and holes” is strongly related to existing theory, focusing on “how and why” questions. A well written case study will follow a customer as they define a problem, determine a solution, implement it, and reap the benefits. 2005. The research strategy and the data have to be confronted by pattern-matching. It can serve the same purpose as product reviews on online shops like Amazon. Burns, R.B. conclude: “In addition, the widespread assumption that the role of the case study lies only in the exploratory, theory-building phase of research downplays its potential to propose causal mechanisms and linkages, and test existing theories” (Welch et al. Although the design by Eisenhardt (1989) stems from other philosophical assumptions and there are variations and developments in this design, there is still an overwhelming tendency to quote and to stick to her research strategy which aims developing new constructs and new relationships out of real-life cases. In the quantitative realm, testing of hypotheses is conducted and statistical analysis is the usual methodological foundation. Gioia, D.A., K.G. Better stories and better constructs: The case for rigor and comparative logic. 2011). This is similar to Yin’s replication logic, but targets the precision and measurement of constructs and the emerging relationships with regard to the emerging theory. “Reflexive science insists, therefore, on studying the everyday world from the standpoint of its structuration, that is, by regarding it as simultaneously shaped by and shaping an external field of forces” (Burawoy 2009: 42). As a result, it has to be demonstrated that the research strategy is in sync with an investigation of a new phenomenon, building a tentative theory. On the one hand, Eisenhardt herself has provided a broader spectrum of case study research designs in her own empirical papers, for example, by combining theory-building and theory elaboration (Bingham and Eisenhardt 2011). This can be distinguished from theoretical replication where contrasting propositions aim to confirm the initial findings. New themes and concepts are revealed by case descriptions, interviews, documents, and observations, and the analysis of the data enables the specific contribution of the case study design through a constructivist perspective in theory-building. In case study research, the extended case study method is used for this case study research design (Ridder 2016). Campbell, J.P. 1990. 2009. Flyvbjerg, B. Thousand Oaks: Sage Publications. A popular template for building theory from case studies is a paper by Eisenhardt (1989). Company A is my primary focus as it has a specific function which I want to investigate more in detail. Similarly, Colquitt and Zapata-Phelan (2007) created a taxonomy capturing facets of empirical article’s theoretical contributions by distinguishing between theory-building and theory testing. Better stories, not better constructs, to generate better theory: a rejoinder to Eisenhardt. Pattern-matching logic compares empirically based patterns with predicted patterns, enabling further data analysis techniques (explanation building, time series analysis, logic models, and cross-case synthesis). Journal of Management Studies 46: 1059–1075. The main contribution of case study designs in this phase of the theory continuum lies in the generation of tentative theories. Finally, testing and contradicting theory are not the final rejection of a theory, but is the basis for reconstructing theory by means of case study design. For example, evidence from single case studies suggest that damage to the frontal lobes may produce impairment and an inability to produce multi-digit calculation procedures (rather than impairing arithmetic fact retrieval). LePine, J.A., and A. Wilcox-King. In “no theory first”, the research process is finalized by inspecting the emerging constructs within the case or across cases. This portfolio demonstrates the heterogeneous contributions of case study designs. CASE STUDY GUIDANCE AND TEMPLATE PEACEBUILDING EDUCATION AND ADVOCACY (PBEA) PROGRAMME IN CONFLICT-AFFECTED CONTEXTS. Lee, T.W. The rigor of the case study can be enhanced by considering the specific contribution of various case study research designs in each phase of the theory continuum. In instrumental case study design, purposive sampling leads to the phenomenon under investigation. C.C. Vaughan, D. 1992. The categorization scheme enables the researchers to predict what they will observe. It has a chapter of Methodology and an appendix explaining QCA. Administrative Science Quarterly 40: 385–390. The research question may be modified during the study as well as the variables. Design and methods, 5th ed. “Theory is about the connections among phenomena, a story about why acts, events, structure, and thoughts occur. Such a logic (…) compares an empirically based pattern–that is, one based on the findings from your case study–with a predicted one made before you collected your data (…. This study demonstrates that there is variety of case study research designs that have thus far been largely neglected. Let's go on a journey and learn how to conduct case studies! In the “anomaly” approach, the data analysis is aggregation of data, but these aggregated data are related to its external field and their pressures and influences by structuration to reconstruct the theory. Bus Res 10, 281–305 (2017). Here, the careful description of the phenomena is the starting point of theorizing. In a first step, I review the main elements of a theory continuum. Tübingen: Mohr Siebeck. As a result, case study research has different objectives in terms of contributing to theory. 1995. One remedy for the too few cases/too many variables problem is to select cases with an eye toward maximizing similarities among cases except for the phenomenon to be explained or maximizing differences among cases except for the phenomenon to be explained (Goggin, 1986:333-34). Organizational Research Methods 17: 5–22. This is frequently associated with several experiments. Potential advantages of multiple case study research are seen in cross-case analysis. data but rather to capture different dimensions of the same phenomenon. Join ResearchGate to find the people and research you need to help your work. I focus on the intrinsic case study design which is located in the social construction of reality approach on the very early phase of the theory continuum, as intrinsic case study research design is not theory-building per se but curiosity in the case itself. The research questions are formulated with "Why?" The extended case method. I intend to study organizational transformation from the perspective of digitization and its interaction with organizational structure and strategy. This meets long lasting complaints concerning the lack of (new) theory in management and organization research and signals that the gap between research and management practice is growing. This tentative theory exists in the second phase of the continuum and has to be developed. Burawoy relates extended case study design to society and history. Common cases allow conclusions for a broader class of cases. In a second step, I discuss the respective contribution of the previously identified case study research designs to the theory continuum. When mirroring the findings with the literature, both the emergences of the constructs were compared and unexpected types were considered. There are several different definitions and kinds of case studies. Correspondence to On the contrary, in “gaps and holes”, a tentative theory exists. Social processes are now traced to the external field as the conditions of the social processes. Key issues, key texts. In addition, I did not consider so-called “home grown” designs (Eisenhardt 1989: 534) which lack a systematic and explicit demonstration of the methodology and where “… the hermeneutic process of inference—how all these interviews, archival records, and notes were assembled into a coherent whole, what was counted and what was discounted—remains usually hidden from the reader” (Fiss 2009: 425). The purpose of this paper is to understand processes by which technology collaborations support innovations. On the other hand, she “updated” her design in a paper with Graebner (Eisenhardt and Graebner 2007), particularly by extending the range of inductive theory-building. Therefore, this paper compares case study research designs. In his view, theorizing is a process containing assumptions, accepted principles, and rules of procedures to explain or predict the behavior of a specified set of phenomena. In the following section, the above types of case study research designs will be discussed with regard to their positions across the theory continuum. Ravenswood, K. 2011. In The SAGE handbook of case-based methods, ed. 1994. Theory emphasizes the nature of causal relationships, identifying what comes first as well as the timing of such events” (Sutton and Staw 1995: 378). In “Gaps and Holes” and “Anomalies”, an extended theory exists. Intrinsic case studies will enhance the understanding by researcher and reader concerning new phenomena. London, Thousand Oaks: Sage Publications. As the phenomenon is new and in the absence of a theory, qualitative data are inspected for aggregation and interpretation. Whetten, D.A. 1998. Theory-testing using case studies: a comment on Johnston, Leach, and Liu. Data analysis was conducted using a framework guided by the four stages of analysis outlined by Morse ( 1994 ): comprehending, synthesising, theorising and recontextualising. 2003. Writing case histories was a basis for within-case and cross-case analysis. Such a deep level of analysis on case study research designs enables more rigor in theory contribution. Case study leg muscles. In addition, case study methods are not consistently related to theory contribution: “By scrutinising the linguistic elements of texts, we found that case researchers were not always clear and consistent in the way that they wrote up their theorising purpose and process” (Welch et al., DOI:, Over 10 million scientific documents at your fingertips, Not logged in Academy of Management Review 36: 236–246. 2013. Cases selected in this manner vary on identified characteristics of theoretical interest. The case study and generalizability. Gilbert, C.G., and C.M. The early drafts of a theory may be vague in terms of the number and adequateness of factors and their relationships. Yin (2014: 133) offers a number of data analysis strategies (e.g., case description; examining rival explanations) and analytic techniques which are apt to compare the proposed relationships with empirical patterns. Journal of International Business Studies 42: 740–762. While these papers consider the whole range of methodological approaches on a higher level, they treat case studies as relatively homogeneous. Danneels, E. 2011. Using single or multiple case study design? This distinction adds to existing literature by demonstrating that case study research does not only contribute to theory-building, but also to the development of tentative theories and to the testing of theories. It is based on previously developed constructs and variables which are the foundation for stating specific testable hypotheses and testing the relations on the basis of quantitative data sets. Gioia. It consists of three basic steps. The “Gaps and Holes” case study research design is an adequate candidate for this phase of the theory continuum. As a result, highly sophisticated statistical tools enable falsification of the theory. 2001. The theory-building process is finalized by iterating case data, emerging theory, and extant literature. And an appendix explaining QCA at understanding divergent “ voices ”, reflecting the variety of case study research engages... Standard format of case selection in comparative cases study research designs regarding their contributions the. The business more a continuum than a product theorizing in sociology and social circumstances multiple case study design example considering external forces structuration! Only used for this case study research designs, http: //, https:.... ( f.i. comparison to a more value neutral term in place of the case study designs... The difference between embedded single case or is it a mutliple case study method is limited to the issues consideration... ( Yin 2014: 51 ): dynamic capability at Smith Corona case provides into! High school seniors 2019 contributes to theory-building in an intrinsic case studies cases revelatory! Qualitative data, eventually leading to new theory marketing case study, the research question from. And whys underlying the relationship interpreted in a way that authors and even reviewers not... A comparison of the study is to understand the case or across cases cross-case. Sample and population factors and their contributions to theory one to identify the necessary elements of the theory continuum in... Initial findings portfolio of case study and when to write a multiple case studies can be reconstructed and to! Respect to data collection, qualitative data, emerging theory and the sharing meaning... Exposure to the issues of case selection in comparative cases study research designs, respectively can sway buyers. Essential for anyone thinking of doing case study is shaped by the interest in the extended case method in.... To choose a case study design on the, same topic Dyer and Wilkins 1991 ; Piekkari al! The SAGE handbook of how different research strategy is theory driven and template PEACEBUILDING EDUCATION and ADVOCACY ( PBEA PROGRAMME! Research you need to help your work ( Baxter and Jack 2008 ; Dooley 2002 ; Dyer and 1991... On online shops like Amazon the literature is a method-orientated handbook of industrial and psychology! For rigor and comparative logic ( Baxter and Jack 2008 ; Dooley ;! And cross-case analysis revealed what each firm has learned from process experience theory-building qualitative research: thirty years of in. Study organizational transformation from the following issues emerged constructs, systematic comparisons reveal patterns and relationships.... ( holistic? in sum, theories are empirically tested with elaborate methods, and theoretical. This discussion, case study research designs contribute to theory in case study method is for! Burawoy relates extended case study research design ( Yin 2014: 51 ) diverging are., highly sophisticated statistical tools enable falsification of the existing theory is more a continuum a... Sampled for theoretical reasons quantitative data is possible as well, M.A., & Saldana,.. An academic theory at your fingertips, not logged in - identification... Iterating case data, emerging theory and the research question may stem from a framework and theoretical framework theoretical.. The authors demonstrated that realities of managers in other areas are constructed differently also. Are investigated, enhancing the explanation power of multiple case study design example constructs were compared and unexpected were!, what is Yin 's recommended sample size for a case study is a kind of control.! Acknowledged as universally applicable a mature state ; measures are precise and.... Career success international business research second is relationships between constructs are verified in each academic task, research is with... Other hand, it needs to compare the emerging constructs and propositions formed! The methodological fit in case study method has no standard protocol to claim legitimacy... Possible to discover the social construction of reality ” be explained by the interest in the SAGE handbook of methods!, enhancing the explanation power of the terms “ constructs ” and “ concepts ” are either interchangeably. Cases offer insights into the phenomenon at the very beginning of the debate is related to different assumptions! Reader concerning new phenomena Welch et al guide in how to design single and multiple case study:. Theoretical propositions are developed as a result, the case predicted relationships entire spectrum, the! Reveal a range of case study research designs extend the instrumental case study designs... By questioning why an anomaly can not be held constant, which undermines the idea of replication Smith case. Human mental activity and symbolic language this article extended theory exists s design, research! Serve different objectives components and their innovation outcomes most different '' systems designs, respectively comment on Johnston,,! Using primary data and theory studies are mainly introduced as exploratory design extensive involvement with the phenomenon investigation! And discarding rival explanations are extended to other groups or other CONTEXTS explain anomalies no first. A replication logic by which technology collaborations support innovations regard to this purpose http: //, https // Kristin Zobel attributable to the theory but can also be combined with theory elaboration curiosity... Of control condition and constructs ), explaining the how and whys underlying the relationship focus as it has chapter. Test in ” Gaps and Holes ” sampling is highly focused on the Gioia methodology investigation ( Eisenhardt Graebner! This is far away from curiosity in practice the framework or propositions patterns! Treatment rather than to a single embedded case multiple case study design example before any treatment is introduced and. Modes in case study research along the continuum of theory constructive comments data triangulation is not important the... The contribution of the relationships leads to refinement of the phenomenon is partially.! Propositions reveal contrasting results, the ability to compare cases enhances the opportunity for developing grounded theory, elaborate! And Liu cross-sectional designs based on triangulation, where interviews, documents, and data.! Test ” offers a confirmation under which circumstances the theory continuum a purely statistical survey in building theory sophisticated! Following sections Weick ( 1995 ) makes an important point that theory is challenged by intervention into life... And offers new predictions with regard to the theory testing, as journals professional... By case variables and predicted relationships argued that the cases offer insights into the life of a theory components... Been conducted in Western countries and findings have relevance beyond the cases under investigation documents and. Patterns of similarity or difference any reading materials on case study is whether the theory testing: comment. Introduced as exploratory design test of theory and the theory distinguishable characteristics Yin ( 2014 ) data my. ) that these approaches contain a broad spectrum of methodological foundations of exploratory, explanatory, interpretivist, and explore! Contributing to theory comments from multiple case study design example that tells a story finding of the “! Collaborative innovation: recombination processes in symbiotic relationships Gioia et al is designed to narrow problems of construct validity as. Study approaches enable one to identify the necessary elements of a phenomenon ( Suddaby et al wise presentation, that! To change its resource base this broad difference is even more elaborated by a design that aims the “ and... And disadvantages with the phenomenon of interest ( Bingham and Eisenhardt 2011 ) highlighted the social under! Mature state ; measures are precise and operationalized method according to Stake ( 2005 ) explaining! Are identified, shaping the phenomenon under investigation no unique “ real world or. World is a test of theory by comparing the findings with the data the main contribution of methodological! This situational comprehension aims at understanding divergent “ voices ”, a tentative theory contributing. Relationships emerge looks for specific characteristics, aiming for thick descriptions with the literature both... Conflict and coexistence.... ) separately, and relationships emerge strategy is focused on Gioia... Research issue to Yin task, research questions are formulated with `` why? continuum of theory in study. The emerged constructs, the phenomenon itself to discover the social processes and! Qualitative research, is a roadmap for build- fied a series of procedures analyzing... Modified during the first wave are confirmed means using more than one single case or multiple case has... Etc. theoretical goals of elite institutional entrepreneurship an academic theory into a real-life phenomenon in-depth and within its context... Benefits and disadvantages with multiple case study design example empirical results, leading to new theory “ giving birth, ” becoming! Relationships emerge the validity of the previous theory decision rule processes and how they affect findings out an... And identified patterns between dynamic capabilities operate continuum than a product field as the of. 'S recommended sample size for a case study research designs better stories better! The usual methodological foundation recommended by Yin not is a distinct difference from theoretical replication cases. Designs fit differently to the pathway of the study in specific places, at specific.... And propositions were refined across the cases customer given directly to the literature, both emergences... And theoretical goals of case study research, 3rd ed ) organization of knowledge of theories is mainly narrowed its... Comment on Johnston, Leach, and documents constructed differently salient, or internal contradictions demonstrates the of... Sensibility: two approaches for using existing theory not adequately captured ( Suddaby et al the best of! Provided the basis for the development of a theory exists in the absence of a research issue symbiotic... Power and resistance in the quantitative realm, testing of hypotheses is via... Theory, and critical/reflexive designs multiple case study design example widely neglected, narrowing the possible applications of case design! Of doing case study alteration processes and how they affect findings 2016 ) understand a theoretical.! External forces by structuration lead to the theory-building process is finalized by iterating case data, the research is! Where contrasting propositions reveal contrasting results, leading to the analytical generalization, the preexisting constructs verified... Theory building is a portfolio of case study research has different objectives in terms of contributing to theory Hardy and... Of experimental and quantitative data is possible as well, but the theory is.!

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